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Factors Affecting Sperm Disorders in Male Fertilization

| 02 Jun 2020 | 1843 Views |

Sperm Disorders leading to male infertility: About 15% of the couple is unable to conceive a baby, even after having unprotected sexual intercourse for a longer period of time. It can be due to the low count of sperm produced by a male in the process of fertilization. Sperm Disorders play a major role in male infertility due to which women are unable to have a baby. It refers to the defect in the quality of sperms produced during the process of fertilization.

For women to get pregnant, their partners must produce healthy sperm during the process of puberty. The male body must produce testosterone which triggers the hormones and maintain the production of sperms. The sperms are carried into the semen which is ejaculated out of the penis. For a healthy pregnancy, there has to be enough sperm in the semen and sperm must be functional to fertilize their partner’s eggs. Sperm disorders male infertility have become a big concern today not only in India but across the globe. There are many causes for it and one should work to minimize the problem.

Sperm Disorders Causes

What could be the possible causes for the Low sperm count which leads to infertility in males? There are several reasons which lead to a low level of sperm production and become sperm disorders causes in males.

Key reasons for sperm disorders

  • Hormonal Imbalance
  • Pain or swelling in the testicle area.
  • The chromosomal abnormality occurs when a man is born with 2 XX chromosomes instead of one X and one Y chromosome due to which infertility occurs in males.
  • Sexual Frustration like difficulty in maintaining an erection during sexual intercourse.
  • Surgery of penis, testicle, or scrotum
  • Varicocele leads to swelling of veins that void the testicle and reduced the quality of sperms.
  • Some infections may block the passage of sperm which leads to permanent damage to the testicular.
  • When semen enters the bladder instead of emerging out of the tip of the penis, it causes a problem in fertilizing the partner’s eggs.
  • The men with spinal cord injuries or with blood pressure medications are unable to ejaculate their semen, even though they produce sperm. However, in such cases, the sperm can be retrieved by using reproductive technologies.
  • Antibodies identify sperm as a harmful invader and destroy them due to which the eggs are not matured during the fertilization process.
  • Cancer or any other tumor affects the male reproductive organs which release productive hormones. The medication process to treat tumors or chemotherapy to cure cancer can attack the male productive organs.
  • Blockage occurring in the tubes which carry sperm may lead to trauma or abnormal development in male reproductive organs.
  • The high dosage of radiations reduces the quality of sperms in males.
  • Industrial Harmful Chemicals lead to low sperm production.
  • Regular intake of drugs, alcohol, and smoke reduces the quality of sperm production.
  • Occupations that require long sitting like truck driving or wielding also contribute to low sperm counts.
  • Depression or emotional stress about infertility also leads to the low development of sperm.
  • Obesity is another factor that directly impacts sperm production.

The Azoospermia Causes

Azoospermia is caused due to the following reasons:

  • Low sex drive or sexual frustrations
  • Pelvic pain
  • Muscle loss
  • Reduced male hair growth
  • Swollen Testicles
  • Low ejaculation [no or little semen]
  • Painful urination

Azoospermia can broadly be divided into two groups:

Obstructive Azoospermia is caused due to the following reasons:

  • Vasectomy interrupts the sperm ducts and stop the flow of sperm
  • Infections in testicles or exposure to diseases like Chlamydia
  • Blockage in the small tubules
  • The blockage in the ejaculatory duct is caused by inflammation
  • Previous trauma or any surgery produces damage or scar in the tissue and even blocked the ejaculatory duct.
  • Dysfunctional ejaculation in which semen falls back into the bladder, instead of moving forward to uthera.

Non-Obstructive Azoospermia is caused by major reasons which are as follows:

  • Chromosomal abnormalities
  • A varicocele
  • Side effects of medications
  • Damage from radiation or chemotherapy
  • Sperm production within testicles is lower in amount than normal
  • Sertoli-Cell Only Syndrome refers to a low level of sperm production within the testicles.

Read More- Ultimate Guide to Male Infertility Diagnostic Tests

Azoospermia Treatment

The term Azoospermia refers to the absence of functional sperm in the semen which causes infertility in males. Azoospermia is also called as “Zero Sperm Count.” There are several treatments available depending upon the type of Azoospermia.

The Azoospermia can be classified into various categories:

  • Pre-testicular azoospermia refers to the problems in hormones that are not producing healthy development of the sperm. The hormonal imbalance can be treated with the help of medicines.
  • Testicular azoospermia refers to the problem in testicles that are not producing testosterone or not responding to the hormones produced by endocrine glands. It can be treated through the procedures of IVF and ICSI. The ICSI is the process in which a single sperm is directly transferred to the egg.
  • Post-testicular azoospermia is also known as obstructive azoospermia. It refers to blockage or when semen falls back into the bladder instead of ejaculating on the tip of semen. The blockage can be treated through microsurgical treatment in which the varicocele is removed or the dysfunction of ejaculation is repaired.
  • Non-obstructive azoospermia is caused due to hormonal imbalance or issues in the development of the sperm. It is treated through medicines or surgeries.
  • PGD refers to a preimplantation genetic diagnosis that allows doctors to check embryos so that healthy embryos can be transferred.
  • If sperm produced by ejaculation is in low numbers then IVF and ICSI techniques can be used by the couple to have a baby.
  • The procedure of Testicular Sperm Aspiration is used to attain the sperm directly from the testes when produced.

The above-mentioned treatment is done after considering the following factors:

  • Detailed medical history of a patient.
  • Measuring testosterone levels and estrogen levels.
  • The physical movement of testicles.
  • Transrectal ultrasound to check for any abnormalities in male reproductive organs.

Read More- A Brief on Male Infertility Causes and Treatment

Normal Sperm Analysis

Sperm counts play a major role in the process of fertilization. The normal level of sperm production ranges from 15 million sperm to 200 million sperm per ml of semen. Less than 15 million sperm is considered a low sperm count.

According to WHO reports, the total sperm count during ejaculation should range from 39-298 million and its considerable volume should be between 1.5-7.6 mL. The swimming and movement of the sperm should be 40-81%. The size and shape of the individual sperm should be between 4-48%. There are treatments available for every problem and sperm disorder can be treated under the guidance of a specialist doctor. If you are a married man and facing an infertility problem, rush to book your appointment at India IVF Clinic for the best solution to your problem of sperm disorders in male infertility at a low cost.

You will surely overcome the problem and enjoy the happiness of fatherhood shortly. Plan your visit to the India IVF Clinic fertility center today!

About The Author
Dr. Richika Sahay

MBBS (Gold Medalist), DNB (Obst & Gyne), MNAMS, MRCOG (London-UK), Fellow IVF, Fellow MAS, Infertility (IVF) Specialist & Gynae Laparoscopic surgeon,[Ex AIIMS & Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi]. Read more

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