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What Is Infertility & Causes of Infertility in Men & Women

| 04 Mar 2022 | 2102 Views |

Infertility is gradually becoming a growing cause for concern in India. An infertility diagnosis, if it comes out to be positive always comes as a shock for the couples trying to have kids of their own. It has been recommended that a couple need to visit a fertility specialist when they have failed to conceive even after a year of unprotected sexual intercourse. According to a study, about 1 in 5 Indian couples are enduring problems relating to fertility. Equipped with the knowledge of the causes and treatments options for infertility, couples can take appropriate steps for handling their situation.

Prevention of Infertility

The only way to prevent Infertility treatement is to lead a healthy lifestyle devoid of smoking and drinking habits. Recreational drugs such as marijuana and an unhealthy diet that is high in cholesterol and saturated fats can also be a factor of Infertility. Eating whole grain products with fruits and vegetables, exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight goes a long way in Infertility prevention.

Causes of Infertility in males

The diagnosis of Male infertility is tougher as compared to female infertility because symptoms do not appear up early. The most common causes of male infertility are


Varicoceles is one of the most common reason of male infertility today, which is reversible. In this condition, the veins in the scrotum show signs of swelling. It can affect one or both testes. Varicoceles have been linked with low sperm count, sperm morphology and quality of the sperm.

02.Ejaculation Disorders

Despite having a healthy sperm count, trouble with ejaculation can prevent conception. These conditions might include premature ejaculation, anejaculation (the failure to ejaculate) and retrograde ejaculation (where the semen enters into the bladder during orgasm rather than coming out from the penis).

03.Tubal Blockages

Sperm needs to pass through several different tubes before being ejaculated. Any kind of Blockage in these tubes can result in low sperm count. The causes for sperm blockage are deformities or a complete nonexistence of the vas deferens.


Infections that are not treated for a long time, can cause notable damage to the sperm and tubules. STDs like HIV, gonorrhoea, and inflamed testicles, are also known to affect the production of the sperm or result scarring that blocks the passage of sperm.

05.Lifestyle factors

Unhealthy lifestyle choices can also lead to male infertility. Smoking and alcohol consumption are the general causes of male infertility that are worldwide. Intake of recreational drugs and obesity also greatly affect sperm count and quality.

Infertility tests for Male Spouse

01.Semen analysis

A semen analysis is the most common procedure when it comes to male fertility testing and seeking to determine if there is a male infertility factor. Sperm is examined under a microscope in order to evaluate the count, shape, appearance, and mobility of the sperm.

02.Sperm agglutination

A laboratory test involving the examination of sperm under a microscope to determine if the sperm are clumping together. Clumping prevents sperm from swimming through the cervical mucus.

03.Hypo-osmotic swelling

A laboratory test that uses a special sugar and salt solution to evaluate the sperm’s tail and ability of the sperm to penetrate the egg. The tails of healthy sperm tend to swell in the solution in contrast with dead or abnormal sperm where the tails do not swell.

04.Testicular biopsy

A small piece of tissue is removed from the tubules in the testes and examined to determine how well sperm are being produced.


An x-ray exam is used to determine if there is blockage or leakage of sperm in the vas deferens.


Ultrasonography to locate damage or blockages in the male reproductive tract.

Causes of Infertility in Women

Infertility in women is generally detected early as it exhibits certain symptoms that stem from hormonal disorders. Apart from hormonal factors, there are also varying issues that can cause infertility in women. Some of the most common causes of infertility in women are


Endometriosis is a very common condition where the tissue of the uterine lining starts growing on the exterior of the uterus. Heavy and painful menstruation is the first signs of endometriosis. The uterine lining developed in expectation of pregnancy sheds and is removed from the body during normal menstruation. However, during endometriosis, the uterine lining does not completely drop. Rather, it connects to other parts of the body. This condition is responsible for about 30-50 per cent of all cases of female infertility.

02.Irregular periods

When a woman faces irregularity in her menstrual cycle, then ovulation cycles can be variable. PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is one of the most common reasons for the occurrence of irregular periods in women and ultimately the major cause of female infertility. Not only irregular periods, but PCOS is also indicated by extreme weight gain, abnormal hair growth, Stress, emotional issues, painful periods and skin diseases.


Quality of ovum is greatly affected by age of the women. After 35 years of age in women can there is a further decline in egg quality. Even when a woman is below the age of menopause stage, she will still have issues in getting pregnant. The rise in the risk of a miscarriage also rises with advancing age.

04.Fallopian tube blockages

After the process of fertilization, the zygote has to travel into the fallopian tube for reaching the uterus. Any issues arising with the fallopian tube thus seriously impact a woman’s chances of getting pregnant.

05.Lifestyle factors

Lifestyle choices such as smoking have an as big impact on female infertility as in the case of males. Miscarriages are more prevalent in women having a history of smoking. Recreational drugs such as marijuana also prevent conception. Being an overweight or underweight women can also lead to issues with fertility. long-term use of birth control pills also causes trouble conceiving as these drugs interrupt the body’s normal hormone production.

Infertility test for female spouse

Ovulation testing. An ovulation prediction kit detects the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) that occurs before ovulation. A blood test for progesterone — a hormone produced after ovulation — can also document that you’re ovulating.

Hysterosalpingography. During hysterosalpingography, an X-ray is taken to detect abnormalities in the uterine cavity. The test also determines whether the fluid passes out of the uterus and spills out of your fallopian tubes. If abnormalities are found, you’ll likely need further evaluation. In a few women, the test itself can improve fertility, possibly by flushing out and opening the fallopian tubes.

Ovarian reserve testing. This testing helps determine the quality and quantity of eggs available for ovulation. Women at risk of a depleted egg supply — including women older than 35 — may have this series of blood and imaging tests.

Other hormone testing. Other hormone tests check levels of ovulatory hormones as well as thyroid and pituitary hormones that control reproductive processes.

Imaging tests. A pelvic ultrasound is used to diagnose uterine or fallopian tube disease. Sometimes a hysterosonography is done to examine details inside the uterus that can’t be seen on a regular ultrasound.

Make sure that you are choosing the best IVF centre in Gurgaon, to treat your infertility.

About The Author
Dr. Richika Sahay

MBBS (Gold Medalist), DNB (Obst & Gyne), MNAMS, MRCOG (London-UK), Fellow IVF, Fellow MAS, Infertility (IVF) Specialist & Gynae Laparoscopic surgeon,[Ex AIIMS & Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi]. Read more

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