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HIV 1 And 2 Antibody – ELISA

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What is HIV 1 And 2 Antibody?

HIV is a viral infection that attacks the immune system. This test is done to diagnose HIV infection by detecting the HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies in the blood. This is not a screening test as this test does not detect an HIV infection soon after exposure. It is used to detect the antibodies, formed after 3 to 12 weeks after exposure.
A negative HIV antibody test usually indicates that a person does not have HIV infection or antibodies. A positive result for both initial screening and supplemental testing is considered as a definitive diagnosis of HIV infection.

Why is HIV 1 And 2 Antibody done?

To confirm HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies

To differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies in specimens of serum that show reactive results with third and fourth generation HIV serologic assays

What does HIV 1 And 2 Antibody Measure?

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV Virus is of two types: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is found in AIDS patients, AIDS-related complex patients, and those persons who are at high risk of getting affected by AIDS. HIV virus can be transmitted by sexual contact, exposure to blood or blood products of AIDS infected patients or transfer of infection from AIDS-infected mother to the fetus. Most of the cases of HIV-2 infected patients are seen in West Africa, and it is detected in patients who had sexual contact with people of that geographic region. These viruses have the same morphology, overall genomic structure, and ability to cause infection. 

When the patient gets infected with the virus, the virus attacks the immune system called CD4 and combines with antibodies to use them for making a large number of copies inside the body of the patient by replication. During the first few weeks of infection, the amount of virus present and the level of p24 antigen in the blood becomes very high. After another 2-8 weeks, these increased levels start to fall as the body of the infected patient starts producing antibodies against the antigen of the virus. At this time, the HIV virus antibody can be detected in the patient’s blood via tests. The tests should be performed at this brief time because after some time both the levels of antigen and antibody in the blood falls. This will make the detection of virus infection difficult as the initial infection may have been resolved and you may not get a positive result against the infection.

The patients who fall under the risk for HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection are screened for HIV-1 or HIV-2 antigen or antibody screening test.


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